Helping you navigate the city easily with automated metros

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Expertise developed by RATP Group with RATP Dev

RATP Group, a pioneer in automated metro operations

As a pioneer in operating automated metros on the long-standing Paris metro network, among the densest in the world, RATP Group has spent over 70 years developing unrivalled expertise in the design, transformation, operation and maintenance of these efficient and sustainable networks.
The Group innovates every day to imagine the services that will make tomorrow better.

Automated metros now constitute one of RATP Group’s areas of focus, while aptly embodying its driving purpose: committing each day to better city living.

Through the creation of efficient public transport networks in fast-growing cities, or the transformation of existing networks at the heart of older cities, these infrastructure projects come to life with the singular aim of benefiting passengers, residents and sustainable cities.

Setting industry standards

There are four possible levels of automation

  • GoA1*: Manual. The driver controls the various aspects of driving the train.
  • GoA2*: Semi-automatic. The train runs automatically, but the driver is responsible for opening and closing doors. The driver steers the train, detects obstacles on tracks and handles emergencies.
  • GoA3*: Driverless. A staff member (not a driver) is on board the train, and is responsible for operating doors and handling emergencies.
  • GoA4*: Unattended. There are no staff members on board. The system manages all operations, which are monitored remotely from a control centre.

*Grade Of Automation

Key figures

Over 480km of automated and semi-automated lines set to be operated globally
75 years of experience
26 lines of fully automated or semi-automated metro lines to be operated by RATP Group by 2026


  • 1952 : RATP tests automated operation of metro lines
  • 1979 : 90% of the Paris metro network is operated by an automated driving system with staff on board.
  • 1998: Metro line 14 starts service. It is a world premiere: a high-capacity and fully automated line with no staff on board.
  • 2012: Full automation of line 1, the oldest and busiest line on the Paris metro, with no major disruption to traffic.
  • 2023 : Metro line 4, the second busiest line on the Paris network, becomes fully automated with no on-board staff.
  • 2023 : Grand Paris Express metro line 15 (GPE) project awarded to international consortium ORA, which consists of majority shareholder RATP Dev, Alstom and ComfortDelGro.
  • 2024 : Global first: with the extension of metro line 14, the automated driving system has been replaced without any major traffic disruption.

Supporting cities in makeing the choices that matter

As a trusted partner, RATP Group serves the interests of cities and transport authorities by facilitating the strategic decisions that are instrumental to their development and attractiveness. Based on each city’s background and needs, the automated metro networks that the Group deploys are customised to transform the existing infrastructure or create future-proof public transport.

Automated metros, supporting cities’ low-carbon trajectory

Automated metros are gaining traction as one of the best technological and ecological responses to the challenges of sustainable mobility. In addition to their high capacity, agility and robustness, automated metros are able to adapt to unique local contexts.

  • In the Île-de-France region, automated metro lines 1 and 4 have reinvented a network that was built over a century ago. Automated metros have also enriched the existing network with the north and south extensions on metro line 14, and the future Grand Paris Express network lines will soon add to them.
  • In the Middle East, Asia, Australia and Canada, automated metros have supported urban growth while relieving congestion in cities and reducing individual car use.
  • Automated metros fully assist cities in their energy transition to decarbonised mobility.
  • Automated metros are the first choice both in greenfield projects for fast-growing cities, and in upgrading projects on long-standing networks.

Good to know

  • 68% of the world’s population will be living in cities in 2050, compared to 55% in 2020. (Source: Giec report, March 2022)
  • 30 cities worldwide, including Paris, have succeeded in reducing their CO2 emissions by an average of 22% over the past ten years, notably through the combination of effective public transport and lower car traffic. (Source: C40)
  • 15% energy savings following the automation of metro line 4

Cutting-edge expertise in the automation of existing structures

The transformation of driver-operated metro lines into autonomous systems provides cities with considerable benefits: through automation, high-ridership lines can offer greater efficiency, service quality and safety. In other words, automation guarantees overall service excellence in terms of passenger information, punctuality, travel time, noise levels in stations and incident response times.

Automating metro lines means higher speed, regularity and robustness on a daily basis. It also means smoother traffic and the flexibility to scale the service offering: all trains on the metro line are managed in real time from a single control centre.

Automation is a complex operation, which requires the participation of numerous contributors.
These include industrial partners to guarantee absolute expertise in safety; engineering, operations and maintenance staff to guarantee the usability of the line within deadlines; and the network (infrastructure, trains and operating systems) to ensure long-term efficiency.
There is also the need to coordinate with various industrial players to avoid depending on a single operating system.
This is what we have done with the Paris metro, by developing the Octys control system with Alstom, Siemens and Hitachi.

François-Xavier Nousbaum,

Manager, RATP Metro Transport Division

Supporting sustainable urban development

While the automation of existing metro lines provides mature cities with a solution, automated metros are generating interest among other types of cities, notably car-dependent cities that have experienced rapid growth and are now reaching saturation. This is notably the case in the Middle East, in cities such as Doha and Riyadh, which have opted for public transport to foster more balanced development. In such cities, automated metros are the central backbone with connections to bus and tram lines.

The city of Riyadh sprawls far and wide, and everybody uses a car. Authorities have opted for a world-class public transport network to relieve congestion and reduce pollution in the capital.
Climate conditions here are harsh – dust, sand, and temperatures that regularly exceed 40°C, so we need to adapt.
The cultural context also plays a major role: quality standards are very high, with a requirement for 99.8% availability, regularity, cleanliness and safety across our lines. (…)

Loïc Cordelle


Combining mass transit with high-quality passenger experience

Key figures

40% less noise on latest-generation trains (MP14)
Close to 95% passenger satisfaction regarding passenger information during normal conditions on metro line 1
97.2% passenger satisfaction regarding punctuality on metro line 14

Spotlight on metro line 14

Pioneer automated metro line 14 is the favourite line on the Paris metro network, and it aims to keep the title.

The line, which has been undergoing unprecedented extension works since 2015, now links Saint-Denis – Pleyel station in the north to Orly airport in the south.

These extensions represent a change in scale for the line. By connecting the centre of Paris to one of the major French airports in 20 minutes, it attracts new types of passengers: not just those who commute to work in Paris every day, but also
tourists and business passengers. It provides all users with a tailored experience.

  • Twice the current number of passengers carried upon completion,
  • 85 seconds between trains at peak hours,
  • 17% electricity savings on new trains deployed with support from Île-de-France Mobilités.

Did you know ?

  • The use of geothermal energy has been trialled to heat Porte de Clichy and Mairie de Saint-Ouen stations. Their thermally activated foundations, which conduct heat to and from the ground, ensure temperature regulation in both stations. Captured geothermal energy makes it possible to halve CO2 emissions, and reduce sulphur dioxide by 20 to 40% and nitrogen oxide by 40%.

Control over the entire chain of expertise

RATP Group has opted for integrated expertise: by operating and maintaining its networks, the Group boasts a wide range of skills and is not merely a network user, but a stakeholder in the entire chain of expertise.
The Group’s teams are in a position to offer a critical overview of existing metro networks, to advise cities on their improvement and transformation strategies, and to acquire new systems. When they are awarded operating contracts, the teams are involved from start to finish in managing assets (rolling stock and infrastructure) assigned to them.

The Group is one of only two operators worldwide to hold dual roles as maintenance operator and project owner.
This unique position enables the Group to be involved in various types of contracts, including upstream design and project ownership on both new lines and long-standing networks.
In renovation projects, RATP Group is able to assist transport authorities in anticipating risks and guaranteeing that automated metro lines will be widely used daily.

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