Since 5 April 2022, the City of Paris urban cooling network has been operated by Fraîcheur de Paris, a company jointly owned by ENGIE (85%) and RATP Group (15%), under a 20-year contract. In line with the decarbonisation and climate change adaptation approach adopted by the capital, Fraîcheur de Paris offers a sustainable and competitive alternative to conventional air conditioning. Over the lifetime of the contract, the goal is a 300,000 metric tons reduction in CO2 emissions while extending the network almost threefold to serve new facilities (hospitals, nurseries, schools, care homes, etc.), amounting to over 300 additional buildings in the health sector. To meet the challenge of protecting the most vulnerable populations in the context of global warming, the service will also be offered to local shops, establishments open to the public and, additionally, some residential housing units.
Upgrading rolling stock that will remain in service for several decades is a structuring choice and a real lever for reducing energy consumption. Procurement contracts for RATP Group buses, metro trains, trams and RER trains now always include GHG emission and energy performance criteria. For the purchase of the new MI 20 trains planned for RER line B between 2025 and 2030, RATP Group and SNCF applied a global eco-design approach covering the energy performance of the new rolling stock (with a target of reducing traction energy consumption by 25%), reducing the carbon impact of train construction, and recyclability of trains at end of life, with a view to the circular economy.
In Paris, rue Beaubourg, the social landlord Paris Habitat and RATP, both partners of the Paris Climate Plan, have been innovating since 2018 by using tunnel heat from metro line 11 to heat a building of 20 social housing units. The heat is recovered and channelled to a heat pump in the building, thus covering 35% of its heating needs on average.
In a context of energy transition, RATP is using renewable energies to improve its carbon footprint. As part of the metro line 14 extension, Porte de Clichy and Mairie de Saint-Ouen stations use geothermal energy to cover their heating and thermal regulation needs, reducing CO2 production by 50%. As a real innovation, geothermal energy production has been directly incorporated into the station walls, to capture heat naturally present in the ground.
Increasing the use of decarbonised energy is a priority for RATP Group: its goal is to increase the share of renewable energies in its overall electricity consumption to 10% by 2025. A concrete example of this commitment was the signature of a first renewable electricity supply contract with EDF in February 2021. Under this Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), EDF undertakes to supply RATP with electricity from five of its French wind farms. Over the three years of the contract, EDF will supply 170 GWh of renewable electricity to RATP, i.e. nearly 4% of RATP’s overall consumption and equivalent to the consumption of its seven tram lines.
With the Bus2025 programme, Île-de-France Mobilités and RATP have committed to a major technological and ecological change: converting the entire RATP bus fleet to electric and biomethane by 2025. In 2022, the milestone of 1,000 clean buses was reached with the incorporation of 600 electric and biogas buses into the Île-de-France region fleet.
Environmentally friendly last-mile deliveries in the heart of the city? This is possible, provided there are more urban logistics mini-hubs where parcels can be transferred from heavy, polluting and noisy vehicles to light, silent, low-emission vehicles. Empty during the day, bus depots lend themselves perfectly to this mixed use, with their bays and industrial-scale surface area.
In agreement with Île-de-France Mobilités, RATP Group has thus adopted an industrial ecology approach: RATP Logistics offers logistics operators daytime use of bus depots when they are empty, or full-time use in certain dedicated areas on the outskirts. The urban logistics offer now comprises a total of 7,500 m2 of “urban distribution facilities” used by Chronopost, Amazon and Ecolotrans on 6 sites.
In 2019 and 2020, the circular neighbourhood Deux Rives trialled an experiment in river waste recycling for the first time in Paris, jointly managed by RATP, the City of Paris and Voies Navigables de France, and called “Tri en Seine”. Deux Rives companies and residents were invited to dump small furniture, electrical equipment or even rubble on a barge moored at the port of Tolbiac, and then at the port of Bercy in 2020. The waste was then transported on the Seine river to the recycling centre at the port of Gennevilliers.
Making use of river transport avoided 25 lorries’ worth of greenhouse gas emissions in Paris and paved the way for the pooling of waste collection for all residents of this vast neighbourhood located between Lyon, Austerlitz and Bercy railway stations and the Tolbiac district. All leading to an economic and environmental gain.